U.S.-Brazil Partnership


Federative Republic of Brazil


Type: Federative republic.
Independence: September 7, 1822.
Constitution: Promulgated October 5, 1988.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state and head of government popularly elected to no more than two 4-year terms). Legislative--Senate (81 members popularly elected to staggered 8-year terms), Chamber of Deputies (513 members popularly elected to 4-year terms). Judicial--Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 lifetime positions appointed by the president).


Population (July 2013): 201 million.
Work force (2012 est.): 106.3 million.
Language: Portuguese.

Economy (2012 est.)

GDP (nominal exchange rate): $2.396 trillion.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.394 trillion.
Annual real growth: 0.9%.
Per capita GDP (nominal exchange rate): $12,079.
Per capita GDP (purchasing power parity): $12,100.
Natural resources: Iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, gemstones, oil, wood, and aluminum. Brazil has 14% of the world's renewable fresh water.
Agriculture (5.2% of GDP): Products--soybeans, coffee, sugarcane, cocoa, rice, livestock, corn, oranges, cotton, wheat, and tobacco.
Industry (26.3% of GDP): Types--steel, commercial aircraft, chemicals, petrochemicals, footwear, machinery, motors, vehicles, auto parts, consumer durables, cement, and lumber.
Services (68.5% of GDP): Types--mail, telecommunications, banking, energy, commerce, and computing.

Trade (2012)

Trade balance -- $19.4 billion surplus.
Exports--$242.6 billion.
Major markets--China 17%, United States 11.1%, Argentina 7.4%, Netherlands 6.2%
Imports--$223.2 billion.
Major suppliers-- China 15.4%, United States 14.7%, Argentina 7.4%, Germany 6.4%, and South Korea 4.1%

Exchange rate (July 29, 2013): U.S. $1 = 2.27 Brazilian reais.

References: CIA World FactbookU.S. Department of State Background Note, and CRS Report for Congress: Brazil-U.S. Relations

White House Fact Sheet: The U.S.-Brazil Bilateral Relationship